Condition monitoring of crack extension in the reinforced adhesive joint by carbon nanotubes

Main Article Content

Omid Sam-Daliri
Mohammadreza Farahani
Alireza Araei


Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are ideally suited to be employed for damage sensing in fiber rein- forced composite structures. In this work, the capability of CNTs for crack extension of a single lap Al-Al adhesive joints (SLJ) under shear load is studied using electrical resistance change. Different weight per- cent of CNT are added to epoxy adhesive. Epoxy adhesive with high concentration of CNT is obtained during shear loading to have the maximum strength and provide the best sensory properties. To provide a more concise evaluation of the crack extension in the adhesive layer under shear load, artificial defects are embedded into the SLJ specimens. The effects of square and circular defects with two different sizes on the crack extension in the adhesive layer are evaluated. The results showed that the maximum relative resistance change has occurred by 220% when the microcracks are initiated and accordingly developed from the nanoadhesive and changed its direction from the Square defect boundary. Additionally, in comparison with interface fracture in defective adhesive joint, when a part of crack grows through the adhesive layer, the resistance change showed higher values.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
O. Sam-Daliri, M. Farahani, and A. Araei, “Condition monitoring of crack extension in the reinforced adhesive joint by carbon nanotubes”, Weld. Tech. Rev., vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 7-15, Jan. 2020.


Michaloudaki M., Lehmann E., Kosteas D., Neutron imaging as a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of adhesive joints in aluminium, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2005, vol. 25(3), 257-267.

Ren B., Lissenden C. J., Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of adhesive bonds between composite laminates, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2013, vol. 45, 59-68.

Palumbo D., Tamborrino R., Galietti U., Aversa P., Tati A., Luprano V., Ultrasonic analysis and lock-in thermography for debonding evaluation of composite adhesive joints, NDT & E International, 2016, vol. 78, 1-9.

Croccolo D., Cuppini R., Adhesive defect density estimation applying the acoustic emission technique, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2009, vol. 29(3), 234-239.

Cawley P., Adams R., Defect types and non-destructive testing techniques for composites and bonded joints, Materials Science and Technology, 1989, vol. 5(5), 413-425.

De Freitas S. T., Zarouchas D., Poulis J., The use of acoustic emission and composite peel tests to detect weak adhesion in composite structures, The Journal of Adhesion, 2018,vol. 94(9), 743-766.

Thostenson E. T., Chou T.-W., Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: processing and mechanical characterization, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2002, vol. 35(16), L77.

Andalib H., Farahani M., Enami M., Study on the new friction stir spot weld joint reinforcement technique on 5754 aluminum alloy, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2018, vol. 232(17), 2976-2986.

Kwon D.-J., Wang Z.-J., Choi J.-Y., Shin P.-S., DeVries K. L., Park J.-M., Damage sensing and fracture detection of CNT paste using electrical resistance measurements, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2016, vol. 90, 386-391.

Na W.-J., Byun J.-H., Lee M.-G., Yu W.-R., In-situ damage sensing of woven composites using carbon nanotube conductive networks, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2015, vol. 77, 229-236.

Sam-Daliri O., Faller L.-M., Farahani M., Roshanghias A., Oberlercher H., Mitterer T., et al., MWCNT–Epoxy Nanocomposite Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring, Electronics, 2018, vol. 7(8), 143.

Ahmed S., Schumacher T., McConnell J., Thostenson E. T., Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Bond Strength of Self-Sensing Composite Joints, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2018, vol. 84, 227-237.

Kang I., Schulz M. J., Kim J. H., Shanov V., Shi D., A carbon nanotube strain sensor for structural health monitoring, Smart materials and structures, 2006, vol. 15(3), 737.

O. Sam-Daliri, L.-M. Faller, M. Farahani, A. Roshanghias, A. Araee, M. Baniassadi, et al., Impedance analysis for condition monitoring of single lap CNT-epoxy adhesive joint, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 2019, vol. 88 59-65.

C. Stetco, O. Sam-Daliri, L.-M. Faller, and H. Zangl, "Piezocapacitive Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring in Adhesive Joints," in 2019 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2019, pp. 1-5.

Georgousis G., Pandis C., Kalamiotis A., Georgiopoulos P., Kyritsis A., Kontou E., et al., Strain sensing in polymer/carbon nanotube composites by electrical resistance measurement, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2015,
vol. 68, 162-169.

Nunes L., Mechanical characterization of hyperelastic polydimethylsiloxane by simple shear test, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2011, vol. 528(3), 1799-1804.

O. Daliri, M. Farahani, and M. Farhang, A combined numerical and statistical analysis for prediction of critical buckling load of the cylindrical shell with rectangular cutout, Engineering Solid Mechanics, 2019, vol. 7 (1), 35-46.

O. Sam Daliri and M. Farahani, Characterization of Stress Concentration in Thin Cylindrical Shells with Rectangular Cut-out Under Axial Pressure, International Journal of Advanced Design nad Manufacturing Technology, 2017, vol.(2), 133-141.

Faller L.-M., Mitterer T., Leitzke J. P., Zangl H., Design and Evaluation of a Fast, High-Resolution Sensor Eval-uation Platform Applied to MEMS Position Sensing, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2017, vol. 67(5), 1014-1027. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2017.2771955

Hu N., Karube Y., Yan C., Masuda Z., Fukunaga H., Tunneling effect in a polymer/carbon nanotube nanocompo-site strain sensor, Acta Materialia, 2008, vol. 56(13), 2929-2936.

Thostenson E. T., Chou T. W., Carbon nanotube networks: sensing of distributed strain and damage for life prediction and self healing, Advanced Materials, 2006, vol. 18(21), 2837-2841.